Feb 17, 2021


By EJF Staff

The European Commission has formally warned the Republic of Cameroon that it must do more to tackle illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU) or face being denied future access to EU markets.

The move is welcomed by the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF), which has previously identified the country as offering a ‘flag of convenience’ to fishing vessels operating illegally.

IUU fishing risks pushing ocean ecosystems towards total collapse, with devastating consequences for the marine environment and the many millions of people around the world who depend on it for food and income.

‘Flags of convenience’ – when vessel owners choose a flag which entails minimal monitoring and enforcement – facilitate illegal fishing by making it hard to identify and take action against boat owners.

On 17 February 2021 the European Commission issued a “yellow card” – a formal warning that can lead to import bans to the EU – to the Central African country and urged it to do more to stop illegal fishing. If the government of Cameroon cannot work along with the EU to solve all issues of concern this could be followed by a “red card” involving a full ban.

Executive Director of EJF Steve Trent says:

“We very much welcome the European Commission's decision to warn and initiate a formal dialogue with Cameroon. We had already identified Cameroon as offering a ‘flag of convenience’ in our 2020 report Off the Hook, showing that operators used the flag to operate under the radar and facilitate illegal fishing. These practices undermind any attempts to manage fisheries sustainably and push fish populations to collapse threatening food security and livelihoods in many regions."

“Hopefully this action by the European Commission will help the Cameroonian authorities nip this problem in the bud - before too much damage is done to global marine ecosystems. The carding system is a powerful tool against flags of convenience and has helped several, such as Togo, reform dramatically.”

In recent years more and more vessels have been adopting the Cameroonian flag due to lax government control. Over a third of the vessels now sailing under this flag have adopted it only recently, in the last two to three years , despite having no obvious link with the country. Cameroon's fishing capacity is about nine times larger than it was before 2018 (in registered gross tonnage).

The widespread use of so-called “flags of convenience” by fishing vessels makes it harder to identify the real beneficiaries from illegal fishing and take action against them.

Sustained commitment to progress is needed from all countries if we are to succeed in ending illegal fishing and once again the European Union is leading the world in this commitment.

The EU carding system, part of the IUU fishing Regulation, has been second-to-none in achieving reform of the world’s fisheries and protection of the oceans. This action by the European Commission is active demonstration of their outstanding global leadership in combatting illegal fishing.

But the decision also emphasises the need for coordinated action by all countries whose flag is being used as a tool to facilitate illegal fishing.

For example, The Vega– a gigantic fish factory ship which entered the Cameroonian registry in 2019 – was already mentioned in the European Commission's decision to sanction Saint Vincent and the Grenadines back in 2017. At that point it was operating under the name Gotland, and had previously failed to cooperate with Senegal authorities and settle its outstanding fines after it was observed fishing illegally in Senegalese waters. Through re-flagging, fishing vessels play a cat and mouse game and are able to take shelter. Flags of convenience are central to their ability to continue these offenses with impunity.

Countries must come together and adopt measures designed to deter other states from freely offering flags of convenience, along with methods to ensure that these flags are not used by their own citizens.

These include issuing deterrent sanctions against nationals when they engage or profit from illegal fishing, even when they are operating under a foreign flag; and requesting information on beneficial ownership upon registration of vessels.

For more information or to arrange an interview please contact our Communications team at or call +44 7396 104874. Insta:ejfoundation

Notes for editors:

The EJF is working to secure a world where natural habitats and environments can sustain, and be sustained by, the communities that depend upon them for their basic needs and livelihoods.

The EJF believes that all flag states should adopt the following operational measures:

• Require from all vessels registered, and as part of all applications for entering the fleet register, detail on ownership arrangements and records on the destination of profits from fishing activities. Unless there can be a clear assurance that a vessel’s beneficial owner can be identified and held to account if needed, the flag state should remove the vessel from their registry or refuse registration.

• Carry out background checks on any person or company forming a new, or taking over an existing, corporate entity and that any proposed change to existing ownership arrangements is immediately notified to the flag state.

• Ensure that agencies responsible for flagging vessels and fisheries management work in close cooperation and that fisheries managers have substantive input on decisions on whether or not to flag a fishing vessel.

• Ensure that fisheries authorities and ship registration authorities from the former and the applicant flag state cooperate and exchange vessel information for any vessel before entrance into the fleet. Refrain from issuing deletion certificates to vessels which have failed to settle all fines and liabilities. Applicant flag states shall refuse applications of such vessels.

• Request a record of compliance with applicable laws for all vessels wishing to re-enter a flag state registry and scrutinise vessels with a history of flag-hopping to combat abusive reflagging.

And publish online the following information:

• List of vessels registered to their flag and make the relevant information available through the FAO Global Record of Fishing Vessels, Refrigerated Transport Vessels and Supply Vessels (‘FAO Global Record’), mandating International Maritime Organization numbers for all eligible vessels and national unique vessel identifiers for all other vessels.

• Information on foreign-flagged vessels owned by their nationals and vessels that have de-flagged to other nations.

More information is available in our 2020 report Off the Hook